The Depiction

of late


Counter Culture

in the 1968 Films


Jean-Luc Godard

Gary Elshaw

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MA in Film,
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, November 2000.



There are an inordinate number of people to thank for this project. My supervisor, Dr. Russell Campbell for advice, guidance and the patience and fortitude to put up with my mid-afternoon ramblings. Dr. Harriet Margolis for intellectual and physical sustenance over the couple of years that this project slowly percolated on through. Andrew Brettell for keeping my sense of humour intact. Dr. Lorna McCann for patience, understanding and a sense of humour. Diane Zwimpfer, I owe you many, many thanks, but especially I thank you for helping me to keep sane throughout this and being there for me.

My family, who also contributed in so many ways I can't really begin to explain: Brad, Lis, Richard, Renée, Tony, Emma, Mike, Alta, Adrian, Shaye, Clare, Chris, Jon, Rod, Jenny, Mel, Hamish, Steve, Col, Pete, Kay and Muriel, I thank you for keeping me clothed, fed, housed, supported, and most of all--Loved. For putting up with the erratic moods, the continual talk about Godard until you were all bored to death, and the presence of mind to tell me when to shut up. I'm sure a lot of you still think Godard has a lot to answer for insofar as my mental health goes!

 Thanks to the core London family unit, especially Mike and Alta, for housing and feeding me while I researched. A very large thanks to the London family unit for the resounding welcome as I lurched off the aeroplane at Gatwick. I was overwhelmed and I'll never forget it. I hope you know you're all thought of more than you think. Thanks to Jon for San Francisco, I miss you, and I promise I'll be back! Chris is owed an enormous debt of gratitude for last minute help in editing and helping me to see the error of my 'damn, that's awkward' ways. Clare is owed a big debt for helping me translate the French texts from the Ciné-Tracts. Monty the cat is missed. Mum and Dad are thanked for putting up with what they probably consider the perpetual student.

Thanks to Apple hardware and the internet, there are a lot of people I've never met, and yet are all due many thanks for help, source material, support and friendship: Gloria Monti, Robert Kinsman, D.A. Pennebaker, Jonathan Takagi, Prairie Miller, Mark Langer, Sean Carley, John Collier, Tom Abrahamsson, Buzz Hausner, Mark Rabiner, and Jack Hill.

 Lastly, I'd like to thank Jules. My long suffering partner who got into a relationship with a writer 6 years ago had no idea she was going to get involved with an academic for 5 of them. In my defence, all I can say is, I didn't know either. Really. Deeply felt thanks for tolerating the intolerable, and that would be me.



Le Gai Savoir                                                     


One Plus One

One AM/One PM

Un Film Comme les Autres





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